Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)  is the technology of very small devices; it merges at the nano-scale into nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nanotechnology. MEMS are also referred to as micromachines (in Japan), or micro systems technologyMST (in Europe).

MEMS are separate and distinct from the hypothetical vision of molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics. MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micrometres in size (i.e. 0.001 to 0.1 mm), and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometres (20 millionths of a metre) to a millimetre (i.e. 0.02 to 1.0 mm). They usually consist of a central unit that processes data (the microprocessor) and several components that interact with the surroundings such as microsensors.[1] At these size scales, the standard constructs of classical physics are not always useful. Because of the large surface area to volume ratio of MEMS, surface effects such as electrostatics and wetting dominate over volume effects such as inertia or thermal mass.[citation needed]

The potential of very small machines was appreciated before the technology existed that could make them—see, for example, Richard Feynman‘s famous 1959 lecture There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. MEMS became practical once they could be fabricated using modified semiconductor device fabrication technologies, normally used to make electronics. These include molding and plating, wet etching (KOH, TMAH) and dry etching (RIE and DRIE), electro discharge machining (EDM), and other technologies capable of manufacturing small devices. An early example of a MEMS device is the resonistor – an electromechanical monolithic resonator.


Short pathways and minute volumes of reactants require the sensing of low level signals. Microsensors can respond to color, electrical characteristics, presence of cellular components or molecular level signals such as antibodies or even a specific protein. Creative Microsystems has worked extensively with high sensitivity detectors such as cantilevers, surface plasmon resonance sensors, specific ion concentration, nanodots and near field optical detection methods.

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